COMPANION

David Garlick

Dr David Garlick (1933–2002), Australian scientist and teacher of the Alexander Technique.

Dr David Garlick was a physiologist and medical research scientist at the University of New South Wales. He trained as a teacher of the Technique with Kri (Christine) Ackers and he later attended her course once a week. Garlick was instrumental in organising a symposium, Proprioception, Posture and Emotion, held at the University of New South Wales 16–17 February 1981, at which both Dr Wilfred Barlow and T. D. M. Roberts presented papers. Garlick edited the papers for publication the following year.[1]

The Garlick report, 1988–2002

David Garlick contributed a column, ‘The Garlick report’ – short articles on physiology and research for Alexander Technique teachers – for Direction magazine 1988–2002. These 20 reports were compiled and published in the vol. 3, no. 5 of Direction in 2009.[2] Below is a listing of the individual articles:

  • ‘The Garlick report’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 1, no. 1, provides an overview of his interest in science of the Alexander Technique.[3]
  • ‘The Garlick report’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 1, no. 2, gives summaries of his two studies, ‘Observations on the use of respiratory muscles in posture’, and ‘Postural analysis of standing human subjects’.[4]
  • ‘Dr David Garlick: From the laboratory’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 1, no. 3, reports on an experiment involving subjects lifting weights blindfolded and trying and match or compare weights between either arm. The results show that ‘the more the muscles are contracted the less we are able to detect what the muscles . . . are doing’.[5]
  • ‘The Garlick report: General outlook’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 1, no. 4; on muscle fibres and on nerves to and from mucles.[6]
  • ‘The Garlick report’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 1, no. 5; on muscles and exercise, on nerve pathways in the spinal cord re proprioception and motor nerves.[7]
  • ‘The Garlick report’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 1, no. 6; on positive supporting reaction, stretch reflexes, vestibular reflexes, ocular reflexes, tonic neck reflexes.[8]
  • ‘The Garlick report’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 1, no. 7; on the illusions produced in concert between muscle sense, conscious command and circumstances.[9]
  • ‘The Garlick report’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 1, no. 8; on attention and on red and white muscle fibres.[10]
  • ‘The Garlick report’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 1, no. 9; on connections between emotional and muscle systems.[11]
  • ‘The Garlick report’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 1, no. 10; on the theory that adopting an inappropriate sitting position (i.e. slumping) will reduce the effects of the alert-drowsy cycle.[12]
  • ‘The Garlick report’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 2, no. 1; giving reasons for suggesting that ‘when we stop interfering with our anti-gravity reflexes, by inhibiting unnecessary contractions, then lengthening will occur.’[13]
  • ‘The Garlick report’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 2, no. 2; on the influence of drowsiness (lowered alertness) on the muscles, causing a sense of tiredness or fatigue, and on a coming report on the effects of using AT lying-down.[14]
  • ‘The Garlick report’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 2, no. 3; on breathing and the voice, and the influence of the AT on respiration.[15]
  • ‘The Garlick report’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 2, no. 4; on the anatomy of the muscles of the pelvis and their influence on the position of the pelvis (tilt, angle).[16]
  • ‘The Garlick report’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 2, no. 5; on the results of experiments by Professor Ian McCloskey on sway in the standing human subject, concluding (among other things) that ‘normal subjects can stand in a stable manner when inputs from the semi-circular canals are excluded, use of the equivalent body weight [sic], and when the subject is blindfolded, and when the ankles have tourniquets to exclude inputs from the the feet.’[17]
  • ‘The Garlick report’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 2, no. 6; on Maine de Biran (1766–1824) and his plea for introspection as a tool of science.[18]
  • ‘The Garlick report’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 2, no. 7; on the physiology of the eye.[19]
  • ‘The Garlick report’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 2, no. 8, reports on a study showing that postural activity precedes movement, and that ‘dysfunction of postural muscles results in postural muscle activity not occurring before movement is undertaken and that this affects the quality of the movement.’[20]
  • ‘The Garlick report’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 2, no. 9; on his research plans which include undertaking ‘before’ and ‘after’ effects of pupils taking Alexander lessons on the size of the multifidus muscles, with ultrasound, and abdominal tone and circumference as an indication of the activity of the transversus abdominis muscle.[21]
  • ‘Science the future and AT’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 2, no. 10; on future developments in science of relevance to the Technique.[22]

Other articles

  • ‘A physiologist looks at the Alexander Technique’ by David Garlick; on proprioception and red and white muscle fibres.[23]
  • ‘A physiologist looks at the Alexander Technique’ by David Garlick covers four lectures given at the congress, 1. Muscles and exercises, 2. Postural reflexes, 3. Muscle sense, and 4. The cortical function of attention.[24]
  • ‘A medical scientist’s view’ by David Garlick is a brief summary, however mentioning that ‘last year’ he presented a paper on a study with Alexander-trained subjects in which there was ‘an increase, compared with control subjects, in back muscle (erector spinae) activity correlated with an increased depth and decreased rate of breathing when standing’, and to observations on how heart rate increased as forearm muscle contractions increased.[25]
  • ‘Recent physiological research into the Alexander Technique’ by Dr David Garlick discusses various physiological mechanisms (perception, receptors, muscle spindles, gamma motor fibres, red and white muscle fibres), and reporting on the study ‘Observations on the use of respiratory muscles in posture’ (see ‘The Garlick report’ by in Direction vol. 1, no. 2 above), in which they ‘found that a person with higher back muscle activity had greater abdominal respiratory movements and these were at a lower frequency’.[26]
  • ‘Exciting new research’ by Dr David Garlick; on research identifying two important postural trunk muscles, and that dysfunction of postural muscles results in postural muscle activity not occurring before movement is undertaken, affecting the quality of the movement. It does not directly offer an explanation for the workings of the Alexander Technique.[27]

Booklet

‘The Lost Sixth Sense – A medical scientist looks at the Alexander Technique’ by David Garlick.[28]

Writings on David Garlick

‘Marjorie Barstow works with Dr Garlick’ by Airdrie Long reports on three informal studies. 1. of Marjorie Barstow guiding Michael Frederick’s neck while he was raising his arm. EMG measurements were made of his right forearm flexor muscles, before and during Barstow’s guidance. The EMG activity was smoother and steadier during Barstow’s guidance. 2. of Michael Frederick lying blindfolded on a table, first raising one arm, then raising the second arm to match the angle of the first arm. When his neck was guided there was a smaller difference in angle between the two arms. 3. A blindfolded subject, an Alexander Technique teacher, was lifting weights and trying and match or compare weights between either arm. There was no significant improvement after an Alexander lesson.[29]

Obituaries

  • ‘Dr David Garlick’ (no author) in STATNews.[30]
  • ‘David Garlick’ (no author) in The Alexander Journal.[31]

Remembrances

  • ‘David Garlick’ by Noelene Boardman.[32]
  • ‘A homage to Dr David Garlick 1933–2002’ by Judith Stern provides an overview of some of the physiology which Dr Garlick covered in his articles.[33]

See also David Garlick’s research.

Dr David Garlick *1933 – †10 April 2002.

References

[1] Proprioception, Posture and Emotion edited by D. Garlick (CCME, University of New South Wales, 1982).
[2] Direction vol. 3, no. 5 edited by Paul Cook (Direction Journal, 2009), pp. 4–39.
[3] ‘The Garlick report’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 1, no. 1 edited by Jeremy Chance (Fyncot Pty Ltd., 1990), pp. 5–7.
[4] ‘The Garlick report’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 1, no. 2 edited by Jeremy Chance (Fyncot Pty Ltd., 1991), pp. 33–36.
[5] ‘Dr David Garlick: From the laboratory’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 1, no. 3 edited by Jeremy Chance (Fyncot Pty Ltd., 1988), p. 65.
[6] ‘The Garlick report: General outlook’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 1, no. 4 edited by Jeremy Chance (Fyncot Pty Ltd., 1988), pp. 117–19.
[7] ‘The Garlick report’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 1, no. 5 edited by Jeremy Chance (Fyncot Pty Ltd., 1989), pp. 161–63.
[8] ‘The Garlick report’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 1, no. 6 edited by Jeremy Chance (Fyncot Pty Ltd., 1990), pp. 205–07.
[9] ‘The Garlick report’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 1, no. 7 edited by Jeremy Chance (Fyncot Pty Ltd., 1991), pp. 253–55.
[10] ‘The Garlick report’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 1, no. 8 edited by Jeremy Chance (Fyncot Pty Ltd., 1991), pp. 301–02.
[11] ‘The Garlick report’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 1, no. 9 edited by Jeremy Chance (Fyncot Pty Ltd., 1992), pp. 337–38.
[12] ‘The Garlick report’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 1, no. 10 edited by Jeremy Chance (Fyncot Pty Ltd., 1993), p. 373.
[13] ‘The Garlick report’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 2, no. 1 edited by Jeremy Chance (Fyncot Pty Ltd., 1993), p. 6.
[14] ‘The Garlick report’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 2, no. 2 edited by Jeremy Chance (Fyncot Pty Ltd., 1994), p. 5.
[15] ‘The Garlick report’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 2, no. 3 edited by Jeremy Chance (Fyncot Pty Ltd., 1995), p. 5.
[16] ‘The Garlick report’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 2, no. 4 edited by Jeremy Chance (Fyncot Pty Ltd., 1996), p. 5.
[17] ‘The Garlick report’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 2, no. 5 edited by Jeremy Chance (Fyncot Pty Ltd., 1997), p. 5.
[18] ‘The Garlick report’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 2, no. 6 edited by Jeremy Chance (Fyncot Pty Ltd., 1998), p. 5.
[19] ‘The Garlick report’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 2, no. 7 edited by Jeremy Chance (Fyncot Pty Ltd., 1999), p. 5.
[20] ‘The Garlick report’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 2, no. 8 edited by Jeremy Chance (Fyncot Pty Ltd., 2000), pp. 31–33.
[21] ‘The Garlick report’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 2, no. 9 edited by Jeremy Chance (Fyncot Pty Ltd., 2000), p. 33.
[22] ‘Science the future and AT’ by David Garlick in Direction vol. 2, no. 10 edited by Jeremy Chance (Fyncot Pty Ltd., 2002), p. 6.
[23] ‘A physiologist looks at the Alexander Technique’ by David Garlick in The Alexander Review (Centerline Press, 1986), vol. 1, no. 2., pp. 26-29.
[24] ‘A physiologist looks at the Alexander Technique’ by David Garlick in The Congress Papers 1988: Towards Unity edited by Jeremy Chance (Direction, 1994), pp. 12–18.
[25] ‘A medical scientist’s view’ by David Garlick in The Congress Papers 1991, A Spirit of Learning Together edited by Jeremy Chance (Direction, 1992), p. 99.
[26] ‘Recent physiological research into the Alexander Technique’ by Dr David Garlick in The Congress Papers 1994, The Meaning of Change, 125 Years On, edited by David Garlick (Direction, 1996), pp. 66–70.
[27] ‘Exciting new research’ by Dr David Garlick in The Congress Papers 1999, An Ongoing Discovery edited by Jean M. O. Fischer (STATBooks, 2001), pp. 195–202.
[28] ‘The Lost Sixth Sense – A medical scientist looks at the Alexander Technique’ by David Garlick (Author, 1990), booklet. Available as a PDF in the Mouritz Library.
[29] ‘Marjorie Barstow works with Dr Garlick’ by Airdrie Long in Direction vol. 1, no. 3 edited by Jeremy Chance (Fyncot Pty Ltd., 1988), pp. 66–67.
[30] ‘Dr David Garlick’ (no author) in STATNews vol. 6, no. 7 edited by Ann James (STAT, May 2002), p. 6.
[31] ‘David Garlick’ (no author) in The Alexander Journal no. 20 edited by Francesca Greenoak (STAT, 2003), pp. 46–47.
[32] ‘David Garlick’ by Noelene Boardman in The Alexander Journal no. 20 edited by Francesca Greenoak (STAT, 2003), p. 47.
[33] ‘A homage to Dr David Garlick 1933–2002’ by Judith Stern in The Congress Papers 2011, Learning from Each Other edited by Siriol Jones, (STAT Books, 2012), pp. 96–100.