‘Observations on the use of respiratory muscles in posture’ by David Garlick, et al.
The breathing measured using a bellows pneumograph system for measuring the frequency and size of respiratory movements and the relative contributions of the rib cage, abdominal-diaphragm to tidal breathing. 51 subjects participated, of which 9 were involved in Alexander Technique, and 11 in the Feldenkrais method. Preliminary findings include that respiratory muscles, in their role of raising intra-abdominal pressure, are used to assist in maintaining upright posture.
‘Postural analysis of standing human subjects’ by David Garlick, et al.
117 subjects were examined, divided into a ‘trained’ group (which included some people trained in postural re-education, i.e. Alexander Technique) and an ‘untrained’ group. The postural analysis included photography against a background grid, measuring lumbar lordosis with a pantograph, and using a pelvic inclinometer. Results generally showed some degree of asymmetry. Weight lifters and ballet dancers had greater shoulder slopes. The line of gravity was less anterior to the ankle for ballet dancers and for males and females with postural re-education. Females trained in postural re-education had a significantly smaller measure of lumbar curve.
David Garlick also reported on these studies in ‘The Garlick report’.
Garlick conducted some informal studies which were not written up, but were reported in his ‘The Garlick report’ in Direction.
David Garlick wrote on anatomy and physiology relevant to the Alexander Technique, see The use of anatomy and physiology.
See also David Garlick.